Modeling and simulation of heat of mixing in Li ion batteries

Zhibin Song, Purdue University


Heat generation is a major safety concern in the design and development of Li ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale applications, such as electric vehicles. The total heat generation in LIBs includes entropic heat, enthalpy, reaction heat, and heat of mixing. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of heat of mixing on the LIBs and to understand whether it is necessary to consider the heat of mixing during the design and development of LIBs. In the previous research, Thomas and Newman derived methods to compute heat of mixing in LIB cells. Their results show that the heat of mixing cannot be neglected in comparison with the other heat sources at 2 C rate. In this study, the heat of mixing in different materials, porosity, particle sizes, and charging/discharging rate was investigated. A COMSOL mathematical model was built to simulate the heat generation of LIBs. The LIB model was based on Newman’s model. LiMn2O 4 and LiCoO2 were applied as the cathode materials, and LiC6 was applied as the anode material. The results of heat of mixing were compared with the other heat sources to investigate the weight of heat of mixing in the total heat generation. The heat of mixing in cathode is smaller than the heat of mixing in anode, because of the diffusivity of LiCoO 2 is 1 × 10-13 m2/ s, which is larger than LiC6’s diffusivity 2.52 × 10-14 m2/ s. In the comparison, the heat of mixing is not as much as the irreversible heat and reversible heat, but it still cannot be neglected. Finally, a special situation will be discussed, which is the heat of mixing under the relaxation status. For instance, after the drivers turn off their vehicles, the entropy, ix enthalpy and reaction heat in LIBs will stop generating, but the heat will still be generated due to the release of heat of mixing. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate to see if this process has significant influence on the safety and cycle life of LIBs.




Zhu, Purdue University.

Subject Area

Mechanical engineering

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