Electrochemical model based fault diagnosis of lithium ion battery
A gradient free function optimization technique, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, is utilized in parameter identification of the electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion battery having a LiCoO 2 chemistry. Battery electrochemical model parameters are subject to change under severe or abusive operating conditions resulting in, for example, Navy over-discharged battery, 24-hr over-discharged battery, and over-charged battery. It is important for a battery management system to have these parameters changes fully captured in a bank of battery models that can be used to monitor battery conditions in real time. In this work, PSO methodology has been used to identify four electrochemical model parameters that exhibit significant variations under severe operating conditions. The identified battery models were validated by comparing the model output voltage with the experimental output voltage for the stated operating conditions. These identified conditions of the battery were then used to monitor condition of the battery that can aid the battery management system (BMS) in improving overall performance. An adaptive estimation technique, namely multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) method, was implemented for this purpose. In this estimation algorithm, all the identified models were simulated for a battery current input profile extracted from the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) cycle simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A partial differential algebraic equation (PDAE) observer was utilized to obtain the estimated voltage, which was used to generate the residuals. Analysis of these residuals through MMAE provided the probability of matching the current battery operating condition to that of one of the identified models. Simulation results show that the proposed model based method offered an accurate and effective fault diagnosis of the battery conditions. This type of fault diagnosis, which is based on the models capturing true physics of the battery electrochemistry, can lead to a more accurate and robust battery fault diagnosis and help BMS take appropriate steps to prevent battery operation in any of the stated severe or abusive conditions.
Anwar, Purdue University.
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