Design of multilayer electrolyte for next generation lithium batteries

Nina Mahootcheian Asl, Purdue University


Mahootcheian Asl, Nina. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, May 2013. Design of Multilayer Electrolyte for Next Generation Lithium Batteries. Major Professor: Youngsik Kim. Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable consumer electronics such as cellphones, laptops, etc. These batteries are capable to provide high energy density with no memory effect and they have small self-discharge when they are not in use, which increases their potential for future electric vehicles. Investigators are attempting to improve the performance of these cells by focusing on the energy density, cost, safety, and durability. The energy density improves with high operation voltage and high capacity. Before any further development of high voltage materials, safe electrolytes with high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and high stability with both electrodes need to be developed. In this thesis a new strategy was investigated to develop electrolytes that can contribute to the further development of battery technology. The first study is focused on preparing a hybrid electrolyte, the combination of inorganic solid and organic liquid, for lithium based rechargeable batteries to illustrate the effect of electrode/electrolyte interfacing on electrochemical performance. This system behaves as a self-safety device at higher temperatures and provides better performance in comparison with the solid electrolyte cell, and it is also competitive with the pure liquid electrolyte cell. Then a multilayer electrolyte cell (MEC) was designed and developed as a new tool for investigating electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions in a battery system. The MEC consists of two liquid electrolytes (L.E.) separated by a solid electrolyte (S.E.) which prevents electrolyte crossover while selectively transporting Li + ions. The MEC successfully reproduced the performance of LiFePO4 comparable with that obtained from coin cells. In addition, the origin of capacity fading in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4full-cell (with graphite negative electrode) was studied using the MEC. The performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 MEC full-cell was superior to that of coin full-cell by eliminating the Mn dissolution problem on graphite negative electrode as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The MEC can be a strong tool for identifying the electrochemical performances of future high voltage positive electrode materials and their electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions. Finally, by employing the multilayer electrolyte concept, a new application will be introduced to recycle the lithium. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using water and the contents of waste Li-ion batteries for the electrodes in a Li-liquid battery system. Li metal was collected electrochemically from a waste Li-ion battery containing Li-ion source materials from the battery's anode, cathode, and electrolyte, thereby recycling the Li contained in the waste battery at the room temperature.




Kim, Purdue University.

Subject Area

Alternative Energy|Electrical engineering

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