Screening For Cancer by Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry
This dissertation summarizes two separate studies which evaluated whether desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and TS-MS (TS) mass spectrometry (MS) distinguished cancer from normal tissue for different cancers in different organ systems in different animal species, human and canine. The canine bladder study evaluated whether DESI-MS and TS-MS distinguished InvUC from normal and InvUC in high risk breeds from InvUC in low risk breeds. The study concluded DESI-MS and TS-MS each facilitated differentiation of transitional cell carcinoma (InvUC) from normal canine bladder epithelial tissue using, among other ions, m/z 281.5 (FA 18:1; oleic acid) and m/z 563.5 (oleic acid dimer). PCA-LDA resulted in accuracy rates of 96% for DESI-MS imaging and 93% for TS-MS of InvUC versus normal tissue, and 88% for DESI-MS of InvUC in high risk versus low risk breeds. The human oral cavity study evaluated whether DESI-MS facilitated differentiation of tongue conventional squamous cell carcinoma (“CSCC”) and normal tongue epithelial tissue in three sample groups: fresh frozen banked, and two separate surgical sample groups (Indiana University School of Medicine and University of California – Davis). Each study concluded DESI-MS facilitated differentiation of CSCC from normal oral cavity tissue. In the fresh frozen banked tissue study, PCA-LDA resulted in accuracy rates of 95% for DESI-MS imaging of CSCC versus normal and 93% for DESI-MS imaging of CSCC, adjacent normal and normal. This dissertation suggests that DESI-MS and TS-MS may be useful as either screening or case-finding methods for distinguishing cancer from normal epithelial tissue. Furthermore, DESI-MS may be useful in understanding InvUC development with breed risk and oleic acid dimerization used to uncover novel InvUC lipid metabolism mechanisms. TS-MS may be useful for the rapid differentiation of cancer in a surgical setting or clinical appointment.
Cooks, Purdue University.
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