Observability and observer design for switched linear systems
Hybrid vehicles, HVAC systems in new/old buildings, power networks, and the like require safe, robust control that includes switching the mode of operation to meet environmental and performance objectives. Such switched systems consist of a set of continuous-time dynamical behaviors whose sequence of operational modes is driven by an underlying decision process. This thesis investigates feasibility conditions and a methodology for state and mode reconstruction given input-output measurements (not including mode sequence). An application herein considers insulation failures in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) used in heavy hybrid vehicles. Leveraging the feasibility literature for switched linear time-invariant systems, this thesis introduces two additional feasibility results: 1) detecting switches from safe modes into failure modes and 2) state and mode estimation for switched linear time-varying systems. This thesis also addresses the robust observability problem of computing the smallest structured perturbations to system matrices that causes observer infeasibility (with respect to the Frobenius norm). This robustness framework is sufficiently general to solve related robustness problems including controllability, stabilizability, and detectability. Having established feasibility, real-time observer reconstruction of the state and mode sequence becomes possible. We propose the embedded moving horizon observer (EMHO), which re-poses the reconstruction as an optimization using an embedded state model which relaxes the range of the mode sequence estimates into a continuous space. Optimal state and mode estimates minimize an L2-norm between the measured output and estimated output of the associated embedded state model. Necessary conditions for observer convergence are developed. The EMHO is adapted to solve the surface PMSM fault detection problem.
DeCarlo, Purdue University.
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