Exploring the mechanism of action of spore photoproduct lyase
Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) is a radical SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) enzyme that is responsible for the repair of the DNA UV damage product 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine (also called spore photoproduct, SP) in the early germination phase of bacterial endospores. SPL initiates the SP repair process using 5’-dA• (5’-deoxyadenosyl radical) generated by SAM cleavage to abstract the H6proR atom which results in a thymine allylic radical. These studies provide strong evidence that the TpT radical likely receives an H atom from an intrinsic H atom donor, C141 in B. subtilis SPL. I have shown that C141 can be alkylated in native SPL by iodoacetamide treatment indicating that it is accessible to the TpT radical. Activity studies demonstrate a 3-fold slower repair rate of SP by C141A which produces TpTSO2- and TpT simultaneously with no lag phase observed for TpTSO2- formation. Additionally, formation of both products shows a D Vmax kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.7 ± 0.2 which is smaller than the DVmax KIE of 2.8 ± 0.3 for the WT SPL reaction. Removal of the intrinsic H atom donor by this single mutation disrupts the rate–limiting process in the enzyme catalysis. Moreover, C141A exhibits ∼0.4 turnover compared to the > 5 turnovers in the WT SPL reaction. In Y97 and Y99 studies, structural and biochemical data suggest that these two tyrosine residues are also crucial in enzyme catalysis. It is suggested that Y99 in B. subtilis SPL uses a novel hydrogen atom transfer pathway utilizing a pair of cysteine-tyrosine residues to regenerate SAM. The second tyrosine, Y97, structurally assists in SAM binding and may also contribute to SAM regeneration by interacting with radical intermediates to lower the energy barrier for the second H-abstraction step.
Li, Purdue University.
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