Cascades of genetic instability resulting from compromised break-induced replication
Break-induced replication (BIR) is a mechanism to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) that possess only a single end that can find homology in the genome. This situation can result from the collapse of replication forks or telomere erosion. BIR frequently produces various genetic instabilities including mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletions, duplications, and template switching that can result in copy-number variations (CNVs). An important type of genomic rearrangement specifically linked to BIR is half crossovers (HCs), which result from fusions between parts of recombining chromosomes. Because HC formation produces a fused molecule as well as a broken chromosome fragment, these events could be highly destabilizing. Here I demonstrate that HC formation results from the interruption of BIR caused by a defective replisome or premature onset of mitosis. Additionally, I document the existence of half crossover instability cascades (HCC) that resemble cycles of non-reciprocal translocations (NRTs) previously described in human tumors. I postulate that HCs represent a potent source of genetic destabilization with significant consequences that mimic those observed in human diseases, including cancer.
Malkova, Purdue University.
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