Numerical simulation of combustion and unburnt products in dual-fuel compression-ignition engines with multiple injection
Natural gas substitution for diesel can result in significant reduction in pollutant emissions. Based on current fuel price projections, operating costs would be lower. With a high ignition temperature and relatively low reactivity, natural gas can enable promising approaches to combustion engine design. In particular, the combination of low reactivity natural gas and high reactivity diesel may allow for optimal operation as a reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine, which has potential for high eciency and low emissions. In this computational study, a lean mixture of natural gas is ignited by direct injection of diesel fuel in a model of the heavy-duty CAT3401 diesel engine. Dual-fuel combustion of natural gas-diesel (NGD) may provide a wider range of reactivity control than other dual-fuel combustion strategies such as gasoline-diesel dual fuel. Accurate and ecient combustion modeling can aid NGD dual-fuel engine control and optimization. In this study, multi-dimensional simulation was performed using a nite-volume computational code for fuel spray, combustion and emission processes. Adaptive mesh renement (AMR) and multi-zone reaction modeling enables simulation in a reasonable time. The latter approach avoids expensive kinetic calculations in every computational cell, with considerable speedup. Two approaches to combustion modeling are used within the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework. The rst approach uses direct integration of the detailed chemistry and no turbulence-chemistry interaction modeling. The model produces encouraging agreement between the simulation and experimental data. For reasonable accuracy and computation cost, a minimum cell size of 0.2 millimeters is suggested for NGD dual-fuel engine combustion. In addition, the role of dierent chemical reaction mechanism on the NGD dual-fuel combustion is considered with this model. This work considers fundamental questions regarding combustion in NGD dualfuel combustion, particularly about how and where fuels react, and the dierence between combustion in the dual fuel mode and conventional diesel mode. The results show that in part-load working condition main part of CH4 cannot burn and it has significant effect in high level of HC emission in NGD dual-fuel engine. The CFD results revel that homogeneous mixture of CH4 and air is too lean and it cannot ignite in regions that any species from C7 H16 chemical mechanism does not exist. It is shown that multi-injection of diesel fuel with an early main injection can reduce HC emission significantly in the NGD dual-fuel engine. In addition, the results revel that increasing the air fuel ratio by decreasing the air amount could be a promising idea for HC emission reduction in NGD dual-fuel engine, too.
Nalim, Purdue University.
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