A hierarchical manifold microchannel heat sink array is fabricated and experimentally characterized for uniform heat flux dissipation over a footprint area of 5 mm x 5 mm. A 3 x 3 array of heat sinks is fabricated into the silicon substrate containing the heaters for direct intrachip cooling, eliminating the thermal resistances typically associated with the attachment of a separate heat sink. The heat sinks are fed in parallel using a hierarchical manifold distributor that delivers flow to each of the heat sinks. Each heat sink contains a bank of high-aspect-ratio microchannels; five different channel geometries with nominal widths of 15 lm and 33 micrometers and nominal depths between 150 micrometers and 470 micrometers are tested. The thermal and hydraulic performance of each heat sink array geometry is evaluated using HFE-7100 as the working fluid, for mass fluxes ranging from 600 kg/m2 s to 2100 kg/m2 s at a constant inlet temperature of 59 degree C. To simulate heat generation from electronics devices, a uniform background heat flux is generated with thin-film serpentine heaters fabricated on the silicon substrate opposite the channels; temperature sensors placed across the substrate provide spatially resolved surface temperature measurements. Experiments are also conducted with simultaneous background and hotspot heat generation; the hotspot heat flux is produced by a discrete 200 micrometers x 200 micrometers hotspot heater. Heat fluxes up to 1020 W/cm2 are dissipated under uniform heating conditions at chip temperatures less than 69 degree C above the fluid inlet and at pressure drops less than 120 kPa. Heat sinks with wider channels yield higher wetted-area heat transfer coefficients, but not necessarily the lowest thermal resistance; for a fixed channel depth, samples with narrower channels have increased total wetted areas owing to the smaller fin pitches. During simultaneous background and hotspot heating conditions, background heat fluxes up to 900 W/cm2 and hotspot fluxes up to 2700 W/cm2 are dissipated. The hotspot temperature increases linearly with hotspot heat flux; at hotspot heat fluxes of 2700 W/cm2, the hotspot experiences a temperature rise of 16 degree C above the average chip temperature.


Boiling, Two-phase flow Manifold, Microchannel, Hotspot, HFE-7100

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K. P. Drummond, D. Back, M. D. Sinanis, D. B. Janes, and D. Peroulis, J. A. Weibel, and S. V. Garimella, “ Characterization of Hierarchical Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Arrays under Simultaneous Background and Hotspot Heating Conditions,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 126, pp. 1289-1301, 2018.