The solidification heat transfer, melt convection, and volume shrinkage in the casting of an energetic material are analyzed through numerical modeling and experimental investigation. The shrinkage resulting from phase change is considered through the volume-of-fluid method. The model is validated against an analytical solution and then applied to study the volume contraction during the casting of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Good agreement is obtained between experimental results and predictions of temperatures at selected locations as well as shrinkage shape. New casting conditions are suggested based on the analysis, and improved results are observed both numerically and experimentally.

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D. Sun and S. V. Garimella, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Solidification Shrinkage,” Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 52, pp. 145-162, 2007.