The effect of a variety of surface enhancements on the heat transfer achieved with an array of impinging jets is experimentally investigated using the dielectric fluid HFE-7100 at different volumetric flow rates. The performance of a 5x5 array of jets, each 0.75mm in diameter, is compared to that of a single 3.75mm diameter jet with the same total open orifice area, in single-and two-phase operation. Four different target copper surfaces are evaluated: a baseline smooth flat surface, a flat surface coated with a microporous layer, a surface with macroscale area enhancement (extended square pin–fins), and a hybrid surface on which the pin–fins are coated with the microporous layer; area-averaged heat transfer and pressure drop measurements are reported. The array of jets enhances the single-phase heat transfer coefficients by 1.13–1.29 times and extends the critical heat flux (CHF) on all surfaces compared to the single jet at the same volumetric flow rates. Additionally, the array greatly enhances the heat flux dissipation capability of the hybrid coated pin–fin surface, extending CHF by 1.89–2.33 times compared to the single jet on this surface, with a minimal increase in pressure drop. The jet array coupled with the hybrid enhancement dissipates a maximum heat flux of 205.8 W/cm2 (heat input of 1.33 kW) at a flow rate of 1800 ml/min (corresponding to a jet diameter-based Reynolds number of 7800) with a pressure drop incurred of only 10.9 kPa. Compared to the single jet impinging on the smooth flat surface, the array of jets on the coated pin–fin enhanced surface increased CHF by a factor of over four at all flow rates.


jet impingement, jet arrays, boiling, two-phase cooling, heat transfer, surface enhancement, HFE-7100, microporous coating

Date of this Version



DOI: 10.1115/1.4029969]

Published in:

M. Rau, S. V. Garimella, E. M. Dede and S. N. Joshi, “Boiling Heat Transfer from an Array of Round Jets with Hybrid Surface Enhancements,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 137, 071501, 2015.