Experiments were conducted to investigate flow boiling heat transfer to a dielectric fluid in a silicon chip-integrated microchannel heat sink. Twenty-four microchannels, each 389 lm · 389 lm in cross-section, were fabricated into the 12.7 mm · 12.7 mm silicon substrate. High-speed visualizations (at 12,500 frames per second) were performed simultaneously with heat transfer and pressure drop measurements to investigate the physics of flow boiling in parallel microchannel arrays. At low heat fluxes, bubbly flow is dominant, with the bubbles coalescing to form vapor slugs as the heat flux is increased. At high heat fluxes, the flow regimes in the downstream portion of the microchannels are characteristic of alternating wispy-annular flow and churn flow, while flow reversal is observed in the upstream region near the microchannel inlet. Local heat transfer measurements, obtained at three flow rates ranging from 35 to 60 ml/min, show that at lower heat fluxes, the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing heat flux. The heat transfer coefficient in fully developed boiling is seen to be independent of flow rate in this range. At higher heat fluxes (exceeding 542, 673, 730 kW/m2, respectively, for flow rates of 35, 47 and 60 ml/min), this trend is reversed, and the heat transfer coefficient decreases with further increases in heat flux due to partial dryout in some of the microchannels. Heat fluxes at which fully developed boiling is achieved depend on the flow rate. The pressure drop in fully developed boiling increases with increasing heat flux and is independent of flow rate for the test conditions considered in this work.
Flow boiling; Microchannels; Visualization; Flow patterns; Flow reversal; Electronics cooling
Date of this Version
T. Chen and S. V. Garimella, “Measurements and High-Speed Visualizations of Flow Boiling of a Dielectric Fluid in a Silicon Microchannel Heat Sink,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow Vol. 32, pp. 957-971, 2006.