The accepted (peer-reviewed) version for self-archiving. A version of record is available at:

Cite this chapter as: Salam A., Raza U. (2020) Variable Rate Applications in Decision Agriculture. In: Signals in the Soil. Springer, Cham.


In this chapter, the variable rate applications (VRA) are presented for the field of decision agriculture. The characteristics of VRA control systems are described along with control hardware. Different types of VRA systems are discussed (e.g., liquid VRA systems and dry VRA systems). A case study is also explored in this regard. Moreover, recent advances and future trends are also outlined. Accordingly, a sustainable variable-rate irrigation scheduling is studied where different hardware and software component of the cyber-physical system are considered. Finally, chapter is concluded with a novel sensor deployment methodology.


Soil, Permittivity, Dielectric, Agriculture, Broadband antennas, Dipole antennas, Internet of Things, Moisture, Underground communication

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