The accepted (peer-reviewed) version for self-archiving. A version of record is available at:

Cite this chapter as: Salam A., Raza U. (2020) Signals in the Soil: Subsurface Sensing. In: Signals in the Soil. Springer, Cham.


In this chapter, novel subsurface soil sensing approaches are presented for monitoring and real-time decision support system applications. The methods, materials, and operational feasibility aspects of soil sensors are explored. The soil sensing techniques covered in this chapter include aerial sensing, in-situ, proximal sensing, and remote sensing. The underlying mechanism used for sensing is also examined as well. The sensor selection and calibration techniques are described in detail. The chapter concludes with discussion of soil sensing challenges.


Soil, Permittivity, Dielectric, Agriculture, Broadband antennas, Dipole antennas, Internet of Things, Moisture, Underground communication

Date of this Version