The accepted (peer-reviewed) version for self-archiving. A version of record is available at:

Salam A., Raza U. (2020) Modulation Schemes and Connectivity in Wireless Underground Channel. In: Signals in the Soil. Springer, Cham.


In this chapter, a thorough treatment of the modulation schemes for UG Wireless is presented. The effects of soil texture and water content on the capacity of multi-carrier modulation in WUC are discussed. The multi-carrier capacity model results are analyzed. Moreover, the underground MIMO design for underground communications is explained thoroughly. An analysis of medium access in wireless underground is done as well. Furthermore, the soil properties are considered for cross-layer communications of UG wireless. The performance analysis of traditional modulation schemes is also considered. The soil moisture-based modulation approach is also explored in this chapter. The connectivity and diversity reception approaches are discussed for wireless underground communications. The connectivity and interference models are studied for Ad-Hoc and Hybrid Networks. The topology control mechanisms for maintaining network connectivity are explored for maximizing network capacity under the physical models (e.g., the protocol interference model and physical interference model). Moreover, the underground diversity is examined for 3W-Rake receiver and coherent detection along with experimental evaluation and comprehensive analysis of performance of equalization techniques.


Sustainability, Digital Agriculture, Wireless Underground Channel, Underground Communications, Internet of Underground Things

Date of this Version


Available for download on Tuesday, August 17, 2021