The electromagnetic characteristics of the soil are discussed in this chapter. The characteristics of porous bedrock, soil medium, and impacts of rain attenuations are also presented. The models of dielectric soil properties are studied with a rigorous focus on the constitutive parameters of subsurface soil medium. Moreover, the permittivity and wavenumber in soil are explained. In addition, the frequency-dependent dielectric properties such as dispersion in soil, absorption characteristic, and penetration depth versus frequency are reviewed. Furthermore, the effective permittivity of soil–water mixture for through-the soil-propagation mechanism is analyzed thoroughly.
Soil, Permittivity, Dielectric, Agriculture, Broadband antennas, Dipole antennas, Internet of Things, Moisture, Underground communication
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