The accepted (peer-reviewed) version for self-archiving. A version of record is available at:

Cite this chapter as: Salam A., Raza U. (2020) Signals in the Soil: An Introduction to Wireless Underground Communications. In: Signals in the Soil. Springer, Cham.


In this chapter, wireless underground (UG) communications are introduced. A detailed overview of WUC is given. A comprehensive review of research challenges in WUC is presented. The evolution of underground wireless is also discussed. Moreover, different component of UG communications is wireless. The WUC system architecture is explained with a detailed discussion of the anatomy of an underground mote. The examples of UG wireless communication systems are explored. Furthermore, the differences of UG wireless and over-the-air wireless are debated. Different types of wireless underground channel (e.g., In-Soil, Soil-to-Air, and Air-to-Soil) are reported as well.


Signals in the soil, Electromagnetic waves, Sensors for real-time monitoring of soil, Digital agriculture, Wireless underground communications, Underground sensing, Subsurface antenna, Over-the-air wireless

Date of this Version