This is the publisher version of U. Raza, A. Salam, "Zenneck Waves in Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification and Application in EM-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer", Smart Cities, Volume 3, No. 2, pp. 308-340, 2020. doi: 10.3390/smartcities3020017. Published by MDPI, it is made available here CC-BY.


In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power transfer application using Zenneck surface waves in electromagnetic (EM) based wireless underground communications is developed.


Sustainability, Digital Agriculture, Wireless Underground Channel, Underground Communications, Internet of Underground Things

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