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Mehmet C. Vuran, Abdul Salam, Rigoberto Wong, Suat Irmak, Internet of
underground things in precision agriculture: Architecture and technology
aspects, Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 81, 2018, Pages 160-173, ISSN 1570-8705,


The projected increases in World population and need for food have recently motivated adoption of information technology solutions in crop fields within precision agriculture approaches. Internet Of Underground Things (IOUT), which consists of sensors and communication devices, partly or completely buried underground for real-time soil sensing and monitoring, emerge from this need. This new paradigm facilitates seamless integration of underground sensors, machinery, and irrigation systems with the complex social network of growers, agronomists, crop consultants, and advisors. In this paper, state-of-the-art communication architectures are reviewed, and underlying sensing technology and communication mechanisms for IOUT are presented. Moreover, recent advances in the theory and applications of wireless underground communication are also reported. Finally, major challenges in IOUT design and implementation are identified.


Internet of Things, Wireless Underground Communications, Sensing, Precision Agriculture, Soil Moisture

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