In digital agriculture, the cognitive radio technology is being envisaged as solution to spectral shortage problems by allowing agricultural cognitive users to co-exist with noncognitive users in the same spectrum on the field. Cognitive radios increase system capacity and spectral efficiency by sensing the spectrum and adapting the transmission parameters. This design requires a robust, adaptable and flexible physical layer to support cognitive radio functionality. In this paper, a novel physical layer architecture for cognitive radio based on cognition, cooperation, and cognitive interference avoidance has been developed by using power control for digital agriculture applications. The design is based on sensing of spectrum usage, detecting the message/spreading code of noncognitive users, cognitive relaying, cooperation, and cognition of channel parameters. Moreover, the power and rate allocation, ergodic, and outage capacity formulas are also presented.
signals in the soil; electromagnetic waves; sensors for real-time monitoring of soil; digital agriculture; wireless underground communications; underground sensing; subsurface antenna
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