Mutations in Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe-Like1 and Yellow Stripe-Like3 Reveal Their Roles in Metal Ion Homeostasis and Loading of Metal Ions in Seeds


Here, we describe two members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Yellow Stripe-Like (YSL) family, AtYSL1 and AtYSL3. The YSL1 and YSL3 proteins are members of the oligopeptide transporter family and are predicted to be integral membrane proteins. YSL1 and YSL3 are similar to the maize (Zea mays) YS1 phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) and the AtYSL2 iron (Fe)-nicotianamine transporter, and are predicted to transport metal-nicotianamine complexes into cells. YSL1 and YSL3 mRNAs are expressed in both root and shoot tissues, and both are regulated in response to the Fe status of the plant. -Glucuronidase reporter expression, driven by YSL1 and YSL3 promoters, reveals expression patterns of the genes in roots, leaves, and flowers. Expression was highest in senescing rosette leaves and cauline leaves. Whereas the single mutants ysl1 and ysl3 had no visible phenotypes, the ysl1ysl3 double mutant exhibited Fe deficiency symptoms, such as interveinal chlorosis. Leaf Fe concentrations are decreased in the double mutant, whereas manganese, zinc, and especially copper concentrations are elevated. In seeds of double-mutant plants, the concentrations of Fe, zinc, and copper are low. Mobilization of metals from leaves during senescence is impaired in the double mutant. In addition, the double mutant has reduced fertility due to defective anther and embryo development. The proposed physiological roles for YSL1 and YSL3 are in delivery of metal micronutrients to and from vascular tissues.


vascular tissues, metal micronutrients, arabidopsis, oligopeptide, Yello Strip, nicotianamine transporter, cauline leaves, phenotypes, metal ion

Date of this Version



Plant Physiology 141:1446-1458 (2006)