Fast and Effective Orchestration of Compiler Optimizations for Automatic Performance Tuning


Although compile-time optimizations generally improve program performance, degradations caused by individual techniques are to be expected. One promising research direction to overcome this problem is the development of dynamic, feedback-directed optimization orchestration algorithms, which automatically search for the combination of optimization techniques that achieves the best program performance. The challenge is to develop an orchestration algorithm that finds, in an exponential search space, a solution that is close to the best, in acceptable time. In this paper, we build such a fast and effective algorithm, called Combined Elimination (CE). The key advance of CE over existing techniques is that it takes the least tuning time (57% of the closest alternative), while achieving the same program performance. We conduct the experiments on both a Pentium IV machine and a SPARC II machine, by measuring performance of SPEC CPU2000 benchmarks under a large set of 38 GCC compiler options. Furthermore, through orchestrating a small set of optimizations causing the most degradation, we show that the performance achieved by CE is close to the upper bound obtained by an exhaustive search algorithm. The gap is less than 0.2% on average.


compile time, optimization, degradations, feedback directed, exponential search space, performance, compiler, combined elimination

Date of this Version



International Symposium on Code Generation and Optimization (CGO'06) New York, New York, March 26-March 29