Rafael E. Arango-Isaza, Corporacion para Investigaciones Biologicas, Plant Biotechnology Unit, Medellin, Colombia
Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International, Wageningen, Netherlands
Braham Deep Singh Dhillon, Purdue University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology
Andrea L. Aerts, DOE Joint Genome InstituteFollow
Jean Carlier, CIRAD Centre de Recherche de Montpellier
Charles F. Crane, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington DC
Tristan V. De Jong, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
Ineke M. De Vries, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International, Wageningen, Netherlands
Robert A. Dietrich, Syngenta Biotechnology Inc., Research Triangle Park, United States
Andrew D. Farmer, National Center for Genome Resources, Santa Fe, United States
Claudia Fortes Fereira, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria - Embrapa, Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Brasilia, Brazil
Suzana A L Garcia, Key Gene, Wageningen, Netherlands
Mauricio Guzmán, National Banana Corporation of Costa Rica (CORBANA) La Rita de Pococí, Costa Rica
Richard C. Hamelin, Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Canada
Erika A. Lindquist, DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, United States
Rahim Mehrabi, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute, Karaj, Karaj, Iran
Olman Quiros, Laboratorio LAMA S.A., San Jose, Costa Rica
Jeremy Schmultz, HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, United States
Harris J. Shapiro, WaferGen, Inc., Fremont, United States
Elizabeth Reynolds, Syngenta UK Limited, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
Gabriel Scalliet, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Crop Protection Research, Basel, Switzerland
Manoel Teixeira Souza, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Brazil
Ioannis Stergiopoulos, UC Davis, Davis, United States
Theo A J Van Der Lee, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen UR - Plant Research International, Wageningen, Netherlands
Pierre J G M De Wit, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen, Netherlands
Marie Françoise Zapater, CIRAD Centre de Recherche de Montpellier, Montpellier, France
Lute Harm Zwiers, Avans Hogeschool, Breda, Netherlands
Igor V. Grigoriev, DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, United States
Stephen B. Goodwin, Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States
Gert Hj J Kema, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen, Netherlands


Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this pathogen and in improving the efficiency of banana breeding programs. © 2016 Public Library of Science. All rights reserved


Arango Isaza, R.E., Diaz-Trujillo, C., Dhillon, B., Aerts, A., Carlier, J., Crane, C.F., V. de Jong, T., de Vries, I., Dietrich, R., Farmer, A.D., Fortes Fereira, C., Garcia, S., Guzman, M.l, Hamelin, R.C., Lindquist, E.A., Mehrabi, R., Quiros, O., Schmutz, J., Shapiro, H., Reynolds, E., Scalliet, G., Souza, M., Jr., Stergiopoulos, I., Van der Lee, T.A.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M., Zapater, M.-F., Zwiers, L.-H., Grigoriev, I.V., Goodwin, S.B., Kema, G.H.J. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control. PLoS Genetics Volume 12, Issue 8, August 2016, Article number e1005876, 36p

(CC BY 4.0)

Date of this Version