The dynamic nature of blood flow during hyperthermia therapy has made the control of minimum tumor temperature a difficult task. This paper presents initial studies of a novel approach to closed-loop control of local minimum tissue temperatures utilizing a newly developed estimation algorithm for use with conductive interstitial heating systems. The local minimum tumor temperature is explicitly estimated from the power required to maintain each member of an array of electrically heated catheters at a known temperature, in conjunction with a new bioheat equation-based algorithm to predict the ‘droop’ or fractional decline in tissue temperature between heated catheters. A closed loop controller utilizes the estimated minimum temperature near each catheter as a feedback parameter, which reflects variations in local blood flow. In response the controller alters delivered power to each catheter to compensate for changes in blood flow. The validity and stability of this estimation/control scheme were tested in computer simulations and in closed-loop control of nine patient treatments. The average estimation error from patient data analysis of 21 sites at which temperature was independently measured (three per patient) was 0.0 oC, with a standard deviation of 0.8 oC. These results suggest that estimation of local minimum temperature and feedback control of power delivery can be employed effectively during conductive interstitial heat therapy of intracranial tumors in man.


This is the author accepted manuscript version of DeFord, J.A., Babbs C.F., Patel U.H., Fearnot N.E., Marchosky J.A., Moran C.J., Design and evaluation of closed-loop feedback control of minimum temperatures in human intracranial tumours treated with interstitial hyperthermia, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 29, 197-206, 1991. Copyright Springer, the version of record is available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02447108.


Bioheat transfer, Glioma, Glioblastoma, Hyperthermia, Simulation model, Temperature control, Temperature estimation

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