In the nineteenth-century, transformations in the musical economy led to the development of international tours, and the appearance of the first managers for artists. By analyzing the business strategies of Albert Gutmann in Vienna, Munich and Paris, this paper will show that such impresarios, in order to move from their local institutions to the international arena, had to adapt to the tastes and habits of each audience. Professional middlemen had a decisive influence on these aesthetic choices and, in the context of European tours, they contributed to the reassertion and strengthening of national identities on the musical stage.



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