Comparison of Equivalent System Mass of Yeast and Flat Bread Systems


The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric developed by NASA describes and compares individual system impact on a closed system in terms of a single parameter, mass. The food system of a Mars mission may encompass a large percentage of total mission ESM, and decreasing this ESM would be beneficial. Yeast breads were made using three methods (hand & oven, bread machine, mixer with dough hook attachment & oven). Flat breads were made using four methods (hand & oven, hand & griddle, mixer with dough hook attachment & oven, mixer with dough hook attachment & griddle). Two formulations were used for each bread system (scratch ingredients, commercial mix). ESM was calculated for each of these scenarios. The objective of this study was to compare the ESM of yeast and flat bread production for a Martian surface outpost. Method (equipment) for both types of bread production was demonstrated to be the most significant influence of ESM when one equipment use was assumed. When multi-functional equipment was assumed, type of bread and formulation began influencing ESM calculations to a great extent. This data indicates the need to develop food formulations and menu options simultaneously with multi-functional equipment for minimizing the food system ESM of a Mars mission.

Description:9 pages


Included in: Proceedings of the SAE International Meeting, Vancouver BC, Canada July 7-10. Presented at International Conference On Environmental Systems, July 2003, Vancouver, BC, CANADA, Session: Food Processing


equivalent system mass (ESM), NASA food system, wheat, bread

Date of this Version

July 2003



Publisher Identifier:

SAE Document Number: 2003-01-2618


SAE International

ALS NSCORT Project Number

Project 13 - Food Processing (storage and packaging of food)

Project Lead

Lisa J. Mauer




Published Materials

Administrative Contact

Dave Kotterman, dkotter@purdue.edu


Copyright 2003 SAE International. For additional information please visit the intellectual property section of the publisher's website: http://www.sae.org/about/intelproperty/ or the publisher's home page at: http://www.sae.org


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