Reviews of Geophysics 48,(2010)
Laboratory studies reveal the sensitivity of measured geophysical properties to solid-fluid, fluid-fluid, and solid-solid interfaces in granular and fractured materials. In granular materials, electrical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times exhibit a strong dependence on the size and properties of the solid-fluid interface. The electrical and seismic properties of granular materials and the seismic properties of fractured materials reveal a dependence on the size or geometry of fluid-fluid interfaces. Seismic properties of granular and fractured materials are affected by the effective stress and cementing material at solid-solid interfaces. There have been some recent studies demonstrating the use of field-scale measurements to obtain information about pore-scale interfaces. In addition, a new approach to geophysical field measurements focuses on the geophysical response of the field-scale interface itself, with successful applications in imaging the water table and a redox front. The observed sensitivity of geophysical data to interfaces highlights new ways in which geophysical measurements could be used to obtain information about subsurface properties and processes.
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