#### Date of Award

Fall 2014

#### Degree Type

Dissertation

#### Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

#### Department

Mechanical Engineering

#### First Advisor

Ganesh Subbarayan

#### Committee Chair

Ganesh Subbarayan

#### Committee Member 1

Anil Bajaj

#### Committee Member 2

Marisol Koslowski

#### Committee Member 3

Ananth Grama

#### Abstract

Boundary representation (B-rep) of CAD models obtained from solid modeling kernels are commonly used in design, and analysis applications outside the CAD systems. Boolean operations between interacting B-rep CAD models as well as analysis of such multi-body systems are fundamental operations on B-rep geometries in CAD/CAE applications. However, the boundary representation of B-rep solids is, in general, not a suitable representation for analysis operations which lead to CAD/CAE integration challenges due to the need for conversion from B-rep to volumetric approximations. The major challenges include intermediate mesh generation step, capturing CAD features and associated behavior exactly and recurring point containment queries for point classification as inside/outside the solid. Thus, an ideal analysis technique for CAD/CAE integration that can enable direct analysis operations on B-rep CAD models while overcoming the associated challenges is desirable. ^ Further, numerical surface intersection operations are typically necessary for boolean operations on B-rep geometries during the CAD and CAE phases. However, for non-linear geometries, surface intersection operations are non-trivial and face the challenge of simultaneously satisfying the three goals of accuracy, efficiency and robustness. In the class of problems involving multi-body interactions, often an implicit knowledge of the boolean operation is sufficient and explicit intersection computation may not be needed. Such implicit boolean operations can be performed by point containment queries on B-rep CAD models. However, for complex non-linear B-rep geometries, the point containment queries may involve numerical iterative point projection operations which are expensive. Thus, there is a need for inexpensive, non-iterative techniques to enable such implicit boolean operations on B-rep geometries. ^ Moreover, in analysis problems with evolving boundaries (or*moving boundary problems*), interfaces or cracks, blending functions are used to enrich the underlying domain with the known behavior on the enriching entity. The blending functions are typically dependent on the distance from the evolving boundaries. For boundaries defined by free form curves or surfaces, the distance fields have to be constructed numerically. This may require either a polytope approximation to the boundary and/or an iterative solution to determine the exact distance to the boundary. ^ In this work a purely algebraic, and computationally efficient technique is described for constructing signed distance measures from Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) boundaries that retain the geometric exactness of the boundaries while eliminating the need for iterative and non-robust distance calculation. The proposed technique exploits the NURBS geometry and algebraic tools of *implicitization*. Such a signed distance measure, also referred to as the *Algebraic Level Sets*, gives a volumetric representation of the B-rep geometry constructed by purely non-iterative algebraic operations on the geometry. This in turn enables both the implicit boolean operations and analysis operations on B-rep geometries in CAD/CAE applications. Algebraic level sets ensure exactness of geometry while eliminating iterative numerical computations. Further, a geometry-based analysis technique that relies on hierarchical partition of unity field compositions (HPFC) theory and its extension to enriched field modeling is presented. The proposed technique enables direct analysis of complex physical problems without meshing, thus, integrating CAD and CAE. The developed techniques are demonstrated by constructing algebraic level sets for complex geometries, geometry-based analysis of B-rep CAD models and a variety of fracture examples culminating in the analysis of steady state heat conduction in a solid with arbitrary shaped three-dimensional cracks. ^ The proposed techniques are lastly applied to investigate the risk of fracture in the ultra low-k (ULK) dies due to copper (Cu) wirebonding process. Maximum damage induced in the interlayer dielectric (ILD) stack during the process steps is proposed as an indicator of the reliability risk. Numerical techniques based on enriched isogeometric approximations are adopted to model damage in the ULK stacks using a cohesive damage description. A damage analysis procedure is proposed to conduct damage accumulation studies during Cu wirebonding process. Analysis is carried out to identify weak interfaces and potential sites for crack nucleation as well as damage nucleation patterns. Further, the critical process condition is identified by analyzing the damage induced during the impact and ultrasonic excitation stages. Also, representative ILD stack designs with varying Cu percentage are compared for risk of fracture.

#### Recommended Citation

Upreti, Kritika, "Algebraic level sets for CAD/CAE integration and moving boundary problems" (2014). *Open Access Dissertations*. 376.

http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/open_access_dissertations/376