Urban combat is one of the most extreme environments imaginable. Our paper describes training and simulation research to improve the training of small teams that operate on foot in urban combat and stability operations. We present an overview of urban combat as an extreme environment. Next, we trace the history of the training and technology developments that shaped our present research. The focus of our paper is the After Action Review (AAR) process as applied to small team exercises conducted in immersive virtual environments. A PC-based AAR system is described and examples are given of its use for training and training research. The training emphasizes practice of command and control skills, decision making, and situation awareness. Future research goals are outlined. Current live training capabilities are described to provide a context of the overall training environment with which virtual training systems will be integrated.
Lampton, Donald R.; Clark, Bryan R.; and Knerr, Bruce W.
"Urban Combat: The Ultimate Extreme Environment,"
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments:
2, Article 11.