Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to manuscript submission to Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering.

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract in the body of the manuscript; instead, begin the article with the introduction. The abstract will be uploaded to the JATE website in a separate step, and a title page will be created for you by the editors.
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  • Write your article in English.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, RTF, or PDF files are accepted). After acceptance, tables and figures will need to be uploaded as separate files in JPG or TIFF format with at least 300 dpi resolution.
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1 inch, including your tables and figures.
  • Double space your text.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Font:
    1. Main Body—12 pt. Times New Roman
    2. Footnotes—10 pt. Times New Roman
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs. An indent should be a half-inch.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

All text should be left and right justified so that text is flush with both margins, except where indented

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Foreign words and phrases should be avoided, except for ones in common usage

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.

Article Length

Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length

Colored text

Set the font color to black. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)

Emphasized text

Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces

Except possibly where special symbols are needed, use Times New Roman. If you desire a second font, for instance for headings, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Computer Modern Sans Serif).

Font size

The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.

Foreign terms

Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their capitalization. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.

Main text

The font for the main body of text must be black and in Times New Roman.


Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times New Roman, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. All tables and figures must fit within 1" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from non-standard fonts.


It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break—not a page break—and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page. References should have margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials. The hierarchy for ordering the references is:

  1. Last name of first author
  2. First name of first author
  3. Last name of second author (if any). Co-authored work is listed after solo-authored work by the same first author (e.g., Edlin, A. S. would precede Edlin, A. S. and S. Reichelstein).
  4. First name of second author
  5. Publication date
  6. Order cited in text

The information to be given with each citation in the references is as follows:

Articles in traditional journals:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s). (year or publication or “n.d.” if no date). Title of article. Name of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Optional (but desirable): month/season of publication. For forthcoming (in press) articles, put expected year of publication and substitute "forthcoming" for the volume and page numbers.

Optional(but desirable): A hyperlink to the article.


Required:Author's (authors') name(s). (year of publication or “n.d.” if no date). Title of book (edition if other than 1st) Publisher’s city: Publisher. For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."

Chapters in collections or anthologies:

Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In name(s) of editor(s) of book (Eds.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher’s City:, Publisher. For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."

Working papers:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s). (year of publication or “n.d.” if no date). Title of working paper. location (e.g., "Department of Economics Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley" or "Author's web site: http://www.someurl.edu/author." If the working paper is part of series, then the series name and the number of the working paper within the series must also be given.

Other works:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s). (year or "n.d." if no date)Title of work., and information about how the reader could obtain a copy.

All citations should be written in accordance with the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, second printing.

Use hanging indents for citations (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount). Citations should be single-spaced with extra space between citations.

Within the text of your manuscript, use the author-date method of citation. For instance,

"...as noted by Smith (1776)." 
"...commonly accepted method (Smith,1776)." 

When there are two authors, use both last names. For instance,

"Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) claim . . . "
"...in other populations (Edlin & Reichelstein, 1996)."

If there are three, four, or five authors, include all author names the first time the source is cited. In future citations, give the last name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a 1987 work by Abel, Baker, and Charley, would be cited the second time as

"...used in Abel et al. (1987)."
"...several types (Abel et al., 1987)."

However, a work with six or more authors uses the shortened version on the first citation. If the work was by Abel, Baker, Charley, Duke, Ezekiel, and Fortney, that citation would be used the first time it was mentioned.


If two or more cited works share the same in-line citation, use "a," "b," and so on to distinguish among them. For instance,

"Jones (1994b) provides a more general analysis of the model introduced in Example 3 of Jones (1994a)."

When citations appear within parentheses, use commas—rather than parentheses or brackets—to separate the date from the surrounding text. For instance,

" ...(see Smith, 1776, for an early discussion of this)."