Abstract—Linear complexity iterative and log-linear complex- ity direct solvers are developed for the volume integral equation (VIE) based general large-scale electrodynamic analysis. The dense VIE system matrix is first represented by a new cluster- based multilevel low-rank representation. In this representation, all the admissible blocks associated with a single cluster are grouped together and represented by a single low-rank block, whose rank is minimized based on prescribed accuracy. From such an initial representation, an efficient algorithm is developed to generate a minimal-rank H2-matrix representation. This representation facilitates faster computation, and ensures the same minimal rank’s growth rate with electrical size as evaluated from singular value decomposition. Taking into account the rank’s growth with electrical size, we develop linear-complexity H -matrix-based storage and matrix-vector multiplication, and thereby an O(N ) iterative VIE solver regardless of electrical size. Moreover, we develop an O(NlogN ) matrix inversion, and hence a fast O(NlogN ) direct VIE solver for large-scale electrodynamic analysis. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of large-scale 1-, 2- and 3-D structures on a single- core CPU, resulting in millions of unknowns, have demonstrated ty and superior performance of the proposed VIE electrodynamic solvers.
Direct solvers, fast solvers, matrix inversion, linear complexity, electrically large analysis, volume integral equations, method of moments
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