In this paper, we propose a novel low-power, bias-free, high-sensitivity process variation sensor for monitoring random variations in the threshold voltage. The proposed sensor design utilizes the exponential current-voltage relationship of sub-threshold operation thereby improving the sensitivity by 2.3X compared to the above-threshold operation. A test-chip containing 128 PMOS and 128 NMOS devices has been fabricated in 65nm bulk CMOS process technology. A total of 28 dies across the wafer have been fully characterized to determine the random threshold voltage variations.
image segmentation, Integrated circuits, Process engineering, random processes, Sensitivity analysis, Sensors, Threshold voltage
Date of this Version
Proceedings of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (2008) 125-128;