The CTRC is a National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, and addresses pre-competitive, longer-term research and development issues in the area of high-performance heat removal from compact spaces. The agenda for the Center is set on a yearly basis with research projects identified through a ranking by all members. Regular updates on the work are made available to members through a restricted-access web page. The Center meets twice a year to review progress and choose upcoming projects.

One of the distinctive features of CTRC is that the research agenda is set by the members—each member has a strong input in the research directions adopted. Since members are from diverse industries, beneficial cross-industry interactions are common. A product-oriented focus is maintained. Equipment manufacturers are included amongst the participants, and this facilitates a translation of research ideas and prototypes into products.

Link to the Cooling Technologies Research Center Web site

The following collection of documents represents research from the Cooling Technologies Research Center and related work by Dr. Suresh Garimella and his students.

#### Manuscripts from 2010

Simulation of Condensation in a Circular Minichannel: Application of VOF Method and Turbulence Model, E. Da Riva, E. Del Col, A. Cavallini, and Suresh V. Garimella

A Comprehensive Flow Regime Map for Microchannel Flow Boiling with Quantitative Transition Criteria, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Thermal Analog to AFM Force-Displacement Measurements for Nanoscale Interfacial Contact Resistance, B. D. Iverson, J. E. Blendell, and S V. Garimella

Pressure and Flow Rate Performance of Piezoelectric Fans, Mark Kimber, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Kitsunai, Kenichi Seki, and S V. Garimella

Analysis of Evaporating Mist Flow for Enhanced Convective Heat Transfer, N. Kumari, V. Bahadur, M. Hodes, T. Salamon, P. Kolodner, A. Lyons, and S V. Garimella

Bubble Nucleation Characteristics in Pool Boiling of a Wetting Liquid on Smooth and Rough Surfaces, John P. Mchale and S V. Garimella

Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels of Various Aspect Ratios, John P. McHale and S V. Garimella

A numerical model for transport in flat heat pipes considering wick microstructure effects, Ram Ranjan, Jayathi Y. Murthy, S V. Garimella, and Unnikrishnan Vadakkan

Marangoni Convection and Thin-film Evaporation in Microstructured Wicks for Heat Pipes, R. Ranjan, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Dynamic Analysis of an Electrostatic Compressor, Abhijit. A. Sathe, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Thermal Management of a Soft Starter: Transient Thermal Impedance Model and Performance Enhancements using Phase Change Materials, F. Volle, S. V. Garimella, and M. A. Juds

Characterization of Evaporation and Boiling from Sintered Powder Wicks Fed by Capillary Action, J. A. Weibel, S. V. Garimella, and M. T. North

Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines under Different Environmental Boundary Conditions, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

Thermal Analysis of Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Molten-Salt Thermocline, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2009

Analysis and Prediction of the Thermal Performance of Piezoelectrically Actuated Fans, T. Acikalin and S V. Garimella

A Composite Heat Transfer Correlation for Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Effects of Heat Flux, Mass Flux, Vapor Quality, and Saturation Temperature on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Nonlinear Aerodynamic Damping of Sharp-Edged Beams at Low Keulegan-Carpenter Numbers, Rahul A. Bidkar, Mark Kimber, Arvind Raman, Anil K. Bajaj, and S V. Garimella

Non-Intrusive Temperature Measurements Using Microscale Visualization Techniques, Pramod Chamarthy and S V. Garimella

Thin-Film Evaporation in an Evaporating Droplet, H. K. Dhavaleswarapu, C. P. Migliaccio, S. V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

Microscale Temperature Measurements near the Triple Line of an Evaporating Thin Liquid Film, H. K. Dhavalewsarapu, S V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

Microscale Thermal Transport and Electromechanical Microfluidic Actuation, S. V. Garimella and D. Liu

Direct Simulation of Ionization and Ion Transport for Planar Microscale Ion Generation Devices, D. B. Go, T S. Fisher, and S V. Garimella

Planar Microscale Ionization Devices in Atmospheric Air with Diamond-Based Electrodes, D. B. Go, T. S. Fisher, S V. Garimella, and V. Bahadur

Effects of Channel Dimension, Heat Flux, and Mass Flux on Flow Boiling Regimes in Microchannels, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

The Critical Role of Channel Cross-Sectional Area in Microchannel Flow Boiling Heat Transfer, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Effects of Discrete-Electrode Configuration on Traveling-Wave Electrohydrodynamic Pumping, B D. Iverson, L Cremaschi, and S V. Garimella

Experimental Characterization of Induction Electrohydrodynamics for Integrated Microchannel Pumping, Brian D. Iverson and S V. Garimella

The Influence of Surface Roughness on Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer, B. J. Jones, J. P. McHale, and S V. Garimella

Measurement and Prediction of the Cooling Characteristics of a Generalized Vibrating Piezoelectric Fan, Mark L. Kimber and S V. Garimella

Cooling Performance of Arrays of Vibrating Cantilevers, M. L. Kimber and S V. Garimella

Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Damping in Arrays of Vibrating Cantilevers, M. L. Kimber, R. Lonergan, and S V. Garimella

Microfluidic Pumping based on Traveling-Wave Dielectrophoresis, D Liu and S V. Garimella

Analysis of the Wicking and Thin-film Evaporation Characteristics of Microstructures, R. Ranjan, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Optimizaion of Electrostatically Actuated Miniature Compressors for Electronics Cooling, A. A. Sathe, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Optimization of Electrostatically Actuated Miniature Compressors for Electronics Cooling, A. A. Sathe, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Experimental and Numerical Study of Melting of Particle-Laden Materials in a Cylinder, Dawei Sun, S R. Annapragada, and S V. Garimella

Rarefied Gas Flow in Microtubes at Different Inlet-Outlet Pressure Ratios, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2008

Permeability and Thermal Transport in Compressed Open-Celled Foams, Ravi Annapragada, S V. Garimella, and Jayathi Y. Murthy

Analysis and Suppression of Base Separation in the Casting of a Cylindrical Ingot, Ravi Annapragada, Dawei Sun, and S V. Garimella

Electrothermal Bonding of Carbon Nanotubes to Glass, Sriharsha Aradhya, S V. Garimella, and Timothy Fisher

Energy Minimization-Based Analysis of Electrowetting for Microelectronics Cooling Applications, Vaibhav Bahadur and S V. Garimella

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannel Cold Plate Evaporators for Electronics Cooling, S. S. Bertsch, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

Refrigerant Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Parallel Microchannels as a Function of Local Vapor Quality, Stefan Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Review and Comparative Analysis of Studies on Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels,, Stefan Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Effects of Heat Flux, Mass Flux, Vapor Quality, and Saturation Temperature on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, Stefan S. Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Visualization of Convection Patterns Near an Evaporating Meniscus using micro-PIV, Pramod Chamarthy, Hemanth Dhavaleswarapu, S V. Garimella, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and Steven Wereley

Thermal Resistance Measurement across a Wick Structure using a Novel Thermosyphon Test Chamber, T. W. Davis and S V. Garimella

A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Thermal Characteristics of a Flat Micro Heat Pipe with a Grooved Wick, K H. Do, S J. Kim, and S V. Garimella

Thermal Challenges in Next-Generation Electronic Systems, S V. Garimella, A. S. Fleisher, J. Y. Murthy, A. Keshavarzi, R. Prasher, C. Patel, S Bhavnani, R Venkatasubramanian, R Mahajan, Y Joshi, B Sammakia, B A. Myers, L Chorosinski, M Baelmans, P Sathyamurthy, and P Raad

Enhancement of External Forced Convection by Ionic Wind, David Go, Raul A. Maturana, Timothy Fisher, and S V. Garimella

Microchannel Size Effects on Local Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to a Dielectric Fluid, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Flow Patterns During Convective Boiling in Microchannels, T. Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Recent Advances in Microscale Pumping Technologies: A Review and Evaluation, Brian D. Iverson and S V. Garimella

Infrared Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements and Predictions of Flow Distribution in a Microchannel Heat Sink, Benjamin Jones, Poh-Seng Lee, and S V. Garimella

Simulation of Thermal Transport in Open-Cell Metal Foams: Effect of Periodic Unit Cell Structure, S. Krishnan, S V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

Electrical Actuation of Dielectric Droplets, Niru Kumari, Vaibhav Bahadur, and S V. Garimella

Electrical Actuation of Electrically Conducting and Insulating Droplets using AC and DC Voltages, Niru Kumari, Vaibhav Bahadur, and S V. Garimella

Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Silicon Microchannel Arrays, Poh-Seng Lee and S V. Garimella

Experimental Evaluation of a Miniature Rotary Compressor for Application in Electronics Cooling, A. A. Sathe, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

Analytical Model for an Electrostatically Actuated Miniature Diaphragm Compressor, Abhijit A. Sathe, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Microfluidic Delivery of Small Molecules into Mammalian Cells Based on Hydrodynamic Focusing, F Wang, H Wang, J Wang, H.-Y. Wang, P L. Rummel, S V. Garimella, and C Lu

An Analytical Solution for the Total Heat Transfer in the Thin-Film Region of an Evaporating Meniscus, Hao Wang, S V. Garimella, and Jayathi Y. Murthy

Transport from a Volatile Meniscus Inside an Open Microtube, Hao Wang, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2007

Characterization and Optimization of the Thermal Performance of Miniature Piezoelectric Fans, Tolga Acikalin, S V. Garimella, Arvind Raman, and James Petroski

Prediction of Effective Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Particulate Composites, S R. Annapragada, D Sun, and S V. Garimella

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to a Dielectric Coolant in a Microchannel Heat Sink, T. Chen and S V. Garimella

Thermocapillary Convection Near an Evaporating Meniscus, H. K. Dhavaleswarapu, P. Chamarthy, S V. Garimella, J. Y. Murthy, and S. T. Wereley

Experimental investigation of steady buoyant-thermocapillaryconvection near an evaporating meniscus, H. K. Dhavaleswarapu, Pramod Chamarthy, S V. Garimella, and Jayathy Y. Murthy

Ionic Winds for Locally Enhanced Cooling, David B. Go, S V. Garimella, Timothy Fisher, and R. K. Mongia

Heat and Mass Transport in Heat Pipe Wick Structures, B. D. Iverson, T. W. Davis, S V. Garimella, M. T. North, and S. Kang

Local Heat Transfer Coefficients Under Flows Induced by Vibrating Cantilevers, M. Kimber and S V. Garimella

Local Heat Transfer Coefficients Induced by Piezoelectrically Actuated Vibrating Cantilevers, M. Kimber, S V. Garimella, and A. Raman

Towards a Thermal Moore’s Law, Shankar Krishnan, S V. Garimella, Gregory M. Chrysler, and Ravi V. Mahajan

Analysis of Solid-Liquid Phase Change under Pulsed Heating, S. Krishnan, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, D. Liu and S V. Garimella

Induction electrohydrodynamics micropump forhigh heat flux cooling, Vishal Singhal and S V. Garimella

Analysis of Gap Formation in the Casting of Energetic Materials, D. Sun, S. R. Annapragada, S V. Garimella, and S. K. Singh

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Solidification Shrinkage, D. Sun and S V. Garimella

Piezoelectric Fans using Higher Flexural Modes for Electronics Cooling Applications, Sydney M. Wait, Sudipta Basak, S V. Garimella, and Arvind Raman

Characteristics of an Evaporating Thin Film in a Microchannel, Hao Wang, S V. Garimella, and Jayathy Y. Murthy

#### Manuscripts from 2006

Energy-Based Model for Electrowetting-Induced Droplet Actuation, V. Bahadur and S V. Garimella

Hydrodynamic Loading of Microcantilevers Vibrating in Viscous Fluids, Sudipta Basak, Arvind Raman, and S V. Garimella

Characterization of Rough Engineering Surfaces for Use in Thermal Contact Conductance Modeling, A. F. Black and S V. Garimella

Measurements and high-speed visualizations of flow boilingof a dielectric fluid in a silicon microchannel heat sink, Tailian Chen and S V. Garimella

Effects of Dissolved Air on Subcooled Flow Boiling of a Dielectric Coolant in a Microchannel Heat Sink, T. Chen and S V. Garimella

Subcooled Boiling Incipience on a Highly Smooth Microheater, T. Chen, J. F. Klausner, S V. Garimella, and J. N. Chung

On-Chip Thermal ManagementWith Microchannel Heat Sinksand Integrated Micropumps, S V. Garimella, Vishal Singhal, and Dong Liu

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Melting in a Cylinder, B Jones, D Sun, S Krishnan, and S V. Garimella

Direct Simulation of Transport in Open-Cell Metal Foams, S. Krishnan, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Thermally Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Microchannels of Different Aspect Ratios, Poh-Seng Lee and S V. Garimella

Analysis and Prediction of Constriction Resistance between Coated Surfaces, C. T. Merril and S V. Garimella

Performance Analysis of a Miniature-Scale Vapor Compression System For Electronics Cooling: Bread Board Setup, S. Trutassanawin, L. Cremaschi, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

Experimental Investigation of a Miniature-Scale Refrigeration System for Electronics Cooling, S. Trutassanawin, E. A. Groll, S V. Garimella, and L Cremaschi

Experimental Investigation of a Miniature-ScaleRefrigeration System for Electronics Cooling, Suwat Trutassanawin, Eckhard A. Groll, S V. Garimella, and Lorenzo Cremaschi

Microbubble Return Phenomena During Subcooled Boiling on Small Wires, H Wang, X. F. Peng, S V. Garimella, and D. Christopher

#### Manuscripts from 2005

Subcooled boiling incipience on a highly smooth microheater, Tailian Chen, James F. Klausner, S V. Garimella, and Jacob N. Chung

Advances In Mesoscale Thermal Management Technologies for Microelectronics, S V. Garimella

A Novel Hybrid Heat Sink using Phase Change Materials for Transient Thermal Management of Electronics, Shankar Krishnan, S V. Garimella, and S. S. Kang

A Two-Temperature Model for Solid/Liquid Phase Change in Metal Foams, S. Krishnan, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella