J. A. Fitzgerald and S. V. Garimella, “A Study of the Flow Field of a Confined and Submerged Impinging Jet,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 41, Nos. 8‑9, pp. 1025‑1034, 1998.
The flow field of an axisymmetric, confined and submerged turbulent jet impinging normally on a flat plate was studied experimentally using laser-Doppler velocimetry. Single jets of a perfluorinated dielectric liquid (FC-77) issuing from square edged, geometrically similar nozzles were used in the experiments with the radial outflow confined between parallel plates. The nozzle (length to diameter) aspect ratio was unity, giving rise to a still-developing velocity profile at the nozzle exit. Experiments were conducted with nozzle diameters of 3.18 and 6.35 mm, nozzle-to-target plate spacings of up to four jet diameters, and Reynolds numbers in the range of 8500 to 23000. The toroidal recirculation pattern in the outflow region characteristic of confined jets is mapped. Velocities and turbulence levels are presented over a fine measurement grid in the pre-impingement and wall-jet regions.
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