In his paper, "Mass-Mediated Social Terror in Spain," Nicholas Manganas explores mass-mediated narratives associated with social terror. Manganas posits that one approach to understanding social terror is to conceptualize it as a process of narrativization. Manganas takes a global view while at the same time applying that approach to the contemporary Spanish political and cultural context following the 11 March 2004 terrorist attacks in Madrid. He views the current social and political panorama of Spain as an example of social terror in dialogue with both current and historical national discourses. Manganas details the events surrounding the March 11 attack in Madrid in 2004 and posits that mass-mediated narratives of social terror can be both a struggle to negotiate current political battles of (national) identity, and also a struggle to renegotiate historical pacts that emerged from regimes of social terror such as the Franco dictatorship (1936-1975). The tensions between the image of the nation during Franco and after the attacks are understood in relation to the role of the mass media in reflecting, shaping, and fostering a state of social terror.

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