In his article "National Trauma and the 'Uncanny' in Hage's Novel De Niro's Game" Hany Ali Abdelfattah attempts to decipher the "uncanny" in the character of George who has been haunted by the memories of Bassam, a Lebanese survivor of trauma. Rawi Hage's De Niro's Game crystallizes the national trauma of Lebanon and the massacre of Sabra and Shatila as it unfolds in the story of the friendship between George and Bassam. Abdelfattah employs the psychoanalytic method of analysis with a focus on Freudian concepts such as "repression," "belatedness," "effacement," "displacement," and "non-abreaction of experience" in order to trace the uncanny as narrated in the novel. He postulates that the Lebanese nation, just like the Lebanese individual, has been traumatized by the memory of the massacre of Palestinians in the camps of Sabra and Shatila.
Abdelfattah, Hany Ali
"National Trauma and the 'Uncanny' in Hage's Novel De Niro's Game."
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