In her article "The Stereotyped Image of Christ in Villiers's 'Les Amants de Tolède'" Graciela Susana Boruszko discusses images in Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam's text. The embedding of icons of foreign cultures, histories, and religions into a literary narrative results in a work of art enriched by the images fashioned by the "foreign eye." The narrative strategy of Villiers creates a kaleidoscopic representation of themes and images that merge the fields of religion, literature and history. These themes and images — transposed into the domain of littérature fantastique — follow the initiation of the reader to a supernatural world that imposes its own principles and assumptions over reality. The boundaries of reality are then transposed and a new world opens up where the known and the unknown, the local and the foreign, the natural and the uprooted, the ordinary and the imaginary extraordinary intermingle. Boruszko's study suggests that Villiers's narrative represents an aesthetic journey resulting in the creation of a possible world out of the ruins of the past.

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