In their article "Speech Act Disagreement among Young Women in Iran" Vahid Parvaresh and Abbas Eslami Rasekh investigate the effects of solidarity and deference proposed by Ronald Scollon and Suzanne Scollon on the ways in which young women in Iran perform the speech act of disagreement in their own language and culture. Their data has been analyzed using Geoffrey Leech's classification of illocutionary functions which is based on the social goal of establishing and maintaining comity. Special care has also been exercised to take the respondents' points of view into consideration. Parvaresh and Rasekh suggest that in a non-Western Islamic culture such as Iran, the considerations of deference might override those of solidarity when young women want to disagree with their close male friends. In this way, they argue that young women in Iran employ conflictives, which have the most impolite intention, mostly when and where their addressee is of the same sex.

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