The international circulation of art has today become a rapidly expanding field of study, yet transcontinental circulations have thus far received less attention. In much the same way, a great deal of research has been conducted into bilateral artistic and cultural exchanges, yet scholarship around triangular systems is still somewhat lacking. This latter term refers to instances in which artistic circulation – whether in the form of artworks, artists, aesthetics or styles – involves at least three cultural reference points, and wherein effects of transformation, adaptation and readaptation are all the more complex. Despite the focus on bilateral exchanges, even a relatively cursory investigation of cultural transfers reveals that the majority are in fact triangular. By bringing together in this volume the twin questions of transcontinental circulation and of triangular artistic and cultural transfers, we hope to broach a third and largely unexplored question: that of “South-North-South” circulations.


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